(Melissa zur Loye has done a wonderful job tracing this branch of the Burdick family. As we all know, a genealogy is never complete, so consider this a work in progress. Melissa would appreciate feedback to help her improve what she has written. My feedback -- Great! -- HB)
Joseph C. Burdick was born in Charlestown, RI on June 1, 1826. His family was descended from Robert who arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in 1651, aged 18. His name was first officially recorded in 1655, only thirty years after the Pilgrims’ arrival. Robert married a fifteen year old girl named Ruth Hubbard in the fall of 1655. Ruth had the distinction of being the first white child born in Agawam in the Massachusetts colony, a settlement that was later named Springfield. She was born on January 11, 1640. Ruth's father, Samuel, had come to Salem in 1633 and he was a bit of an individualist. He married his wife, Tasy Cooper, in January of 1636 after marching through the winter woods from Watertown, Mass. to become one of the founding families of Connecticut. Because of his Baptist views he sought refuge in the more religiously tolerant Rhode Island Colony in 1648. In December of 1671 he, his wife, his daughter, and a handful of others formed the Seventh Day Baptist Church of America.
Joseph and Susan Emelia Clarke, born 1829 of Westbrook, CT, were married in Westerly RI on Nov. 4th, 1847. Joseph was a blacksmith. They had a son, also named Joseph C. Burdick who was born in Rhode Island in early 1850. Susan died on March 30, 1850, possibly as a result of complications from childbirth, and is buried at River Bend Cemetery in Westerly, RI. This is the big cemetery in town, and Joseph C. Burdick is buried there (died Sept. 3, 1904), as is his second wife, Eunice A. (Clarke) who was born in 1834 in CT and died Dec. 12, 1911 in Westerly, RI. Joseph and Eunice were married around 1857 and had no children. There is a Eunice A. Clark living with Closson in 1850, aged 25. I believe that when Joseph’s first wife Susan died he married her younger sister Eunice.
Joseph owned land in Westbrook, CT although he lived in Westerly. There is a deed showing that in 1853 Joseph C. Burdick of Westerly, Rhode Island bought for $500 a house and barn and one acre more or less of land in Westbrook, CT. (The land was bounded as follows, Easterly on Highway, Northerly and Westerly on the said Joseph C. Burdick Land Southerly on the Land of Perry Jones Deceas'd.). Therefore, Joseph must have already owned some property in Westbrook prior to this purchase.
Joseph C. Burdick’s parents were Joseph Gideon Burdick and Harriet E. Church. Joseph Gideon was born on Sept. 20, 1797 in Charlestown, RI, and died Oct. 21, 1876 in Charlestown, RI. He and his wife are buried in Richmond, RI. Harriet E. Church was born on Apr. 9, 1799 in Charlestown, RI and died on May 3, 1853. They were married in 1822 in Charlestown. Harriet and Gideon had six children; Louisa S, Joseph C. Evan C., Robert Potter, Harriet Elizabeth, and Weeden B.(Weeden is the name of an early settler to the area…)
Susan’s parents were Clossen Clarke and his wife Eliza (called Tabitha E. in some census documents). They were both born in Connecticut. In 1850 they are living in Westbrook and with them are Ann (17), Eunice (25), Emily (12), Harriet (9), Selina Bartlett (23), Caroline Bartlett (3) and Susan M. Bartlett (2 m.) I wonder if Selina is also a Clark girl and if she named her baby girl after her dead sister. In 1860 they lived in Westbrook CT. In their home were Harriet S., age 19, and Sester R. (spelling) male, age 5. Clossen is a farmer with his property being the biggest in the area with a value of $3550 in land. Emily E. Wright is also living with them, a female age 22, who had been married within the past year. This would be their daughter.
Next door to Clossen and Eliza Clarke in 1850 is the property of Christopher and Amelia (Parks) Burdick. Christopher was born around 1801 in Rhode Island and is listed as a farmer. Amelia is born around 1807 in Rhode Island. Mary C. is 18, Edwin is 23 and is listed as a mariner, and Lucy A. is 7. The children are all born in Connecticut. Their land is appraised at a value of $2500. The children of Christopher and Amelia are elsewhere listed as John P. Burdick, Elizabeth A. Burdick, Edwin Burdick, Mary C. Burdick (who later married Frederick Parker), and Lucy Ann Burdick. Hannah and Joshua Millie (aged 48 and 49) are living with Christopher and his family. They are listed as mulatto, born in RI, and Joshua is a basket maker. The Burdicks live in Westbrook in 1850, 60, 70. In 1880 we find them in Clinton, CT. Christopher died June 29, 1870, buried in Westbrook Cemetery, Stonington, CT.
There is a Christopher Burdick who is brother to Joseph Gideon Burdick and great uncle to our own Joseph. A source has indicated that this is our man.
I believe that Joseph C. came down to visit his uncle Christopher who was living just down the road from the Clarke family who had a pretty young daughter named Susan. It would seem that Joseph C. owned land in Westbrook which may have been where Christopher was living. (Westbrook is around 40-45 miles from Westerly) Joseph and Susan married in 1847 in Westerly, Rhode Island where she died giving birth to their only child, Joseph. The child was sent to live with Susan’s parents in Westbrook CT and was raised by them on the farm. His father, Joseph, married his former wife’s sister. He purchased more land in Westbrook in 1853 but seems to have lived in Westerly, RI. His son, Joseph, lives at least until age 20 with the Clarks but at some point he met Jenny Bailey and they married in 1874. Jennie’s older sister, Jerusha, had previously met and married LeRoy S. Burdick of Westbrook. Joseph and Jennie had one or possibly two children, Blanche and maybe Clossen. Blanche was born in 1874. We have a record of Closson Warren Rathburn who was born on July 27, 1882 in Killingworth. Joseph and Jennie divorced and Jennie remarried. In the 1880 census Joseph is living in Clinton, CT and is listed as a widowed farm laborer. Joseph also remarried but did not have any more children. He may have drowned in the Hammonassett River in 1889.
“The Body Exhumed
A Sensational Drowning Accident in Madison
Madison, July 8,1889 – Joseph Burdict, of Madison, a man of middle age, was found drowned in the Hammonassett River. The body was viewed by the medical examiner and an investigation followed. It has since been learned that Burdict stopped with a colored family when last seen. Several mysterious deaths have occurred of late in the town, and medical experts are going to make an examination of the remains, thinking that Burdick was poisoned and his body thrown into the river.”
1. Title: The Descendants of Robert Burdick of Rhode Island Author: Nellie W. Johnson Publication: The Syracuse Typesetting Co., Syracuse, NY, 1937 Much of this information comes via the Burdick Website. I have compiled it in a document entitled “Early American Burdick History”
2. Joseph Gideon’s father was named Gideon and his mother was 1 Keturah COTTRELL b: 1763 in North Stonington, New London Co., CT. They Married: 1780 in Charlestown, Washington Co., RI 1 Gideon was born in 1759 in Charlestown, Washington Co., RI
(You have a chance to help record another Burdick for history. Matt is a researcher in England who has made the U.S. 8th Airforce during World War II his specialty. He is specifically interested in a B-17 bomber who's co-pilot was 2nd Lt John C. Burdick. If you are related to Lt Burdick or know of his life, please contact Matt. -- HB)
For the past 3 years I have spent considerable time researching the operational history of B17-F 42-30377 in the European Theatre during WWII. This B17 Flying Fortress was captained by 1st Lt Ralph W Eherts who led the crew of 10 men, and 2nd Lt John C Burdick was the co-pilot of this crew. Lt Burdick served in the 95th Bomb Group and the 412th Bomb Squadron.
My Great Uncle flew Lancaster bombers for the Royal Air Force, and a more distant uncle fought in North Africa and Italy in WW-II. Hence I have a very real interest in the war and this has led to a big interest in the U.S. 8th Airforce.
On 9th October 1943, B17-F 42-30377 was shot down over the North Sea with the loss of all hands, including Lt Burdick. I am trying to find information about him. Here is what I have gleaned from his Enlistment Records to the military:
Name: Burdick, John C Jr
Residence State: Tennessee
Residence County: Obion
Place of Enlistment: CP Shelby Mississippi
Date of Enlistment: 12th May 1944 (this is a typing error – Burdick was training in 1942 and flying combat missions in 1943)
Place of Birth: Tennessee
Year of Birth: 1917
Civilian Occupation: Policemen and Detectives, Public Service
Marital Status: Married
I am encouraged by the fact that Lt Burdick was married. But who was he married to? Did he have any children?
I ran a quick search and think I found a census record from the 1930’s, however I can’t be sure – My expertise is in tracking aircraft, not people. Hence my request for assistance from your good self.
Lt Burdick would have been aged 26 when he was in combat. He died when his aircraft was downed over the North Sea on October 9, 1943. Sadly no body was recovered, nor those of any of his 9 fellow crewmen.
The following link will take you to the crew photo I located, supplied by the son of 2nd Lt Thomas Striebich (bombardier). It is also posted on the Burdick Family Association web site:
The four gentlemen in the centre of the group are the officers. From left to right these are:
2nd Lt Thomas D Striebich (Bombardier)
2nd Lt John C Burdick (Co-Pilot)
1st Lt Ralph W Eherts (Pilot) – (Black Trousers)
2nd Lt Solomon Zigman (Navigator)
On the crew photo all were killed in action on October 9, 1943 with the exception of:
- 2nd Lt Zigman (Navigator). Zigman was badly injured by a flak burst on a mission in August of 1943. This injury to his left arm prompted the end of his active service in the military.
- 2nd Lt Striebich (Bombardier). Striebich was ordered to cover the position of a sick bombardier in another crew in September 1943. Whilst on this mission, the plane he was in was shot down. All crew bailed out and were taken prisoner thus spending the rest of the war in captivity. This temporary re-assignment ultimately saved his life. It was actually 2nd Lt Burdick who wrote to 2nd Lt Striebich’s wife and parents to re-assure them that Tom had been seen by witnesses in other aircraft to successfully bail out of his damaged aircraft on September 6 and parachute to safety. This letter survives somewhere and is being looked for as you read this.
- S/Sgt Wallace Petzack (Tailgunner – Unidentified on the photo). For reasons unknown, Petzack did not fly on the fateful mission. However, while re-assigned to another crew, he was mortally wounded in December 1943.
Only 2 men in this photo survived the war. Of those, one was badly injured, and the other a POW - Both carried the psychological and physical scars of their experiences for the rest of their lives, and, according to their families, both were devastated by the death of their crewmates in the photo you see. They were an incredibly close group by all accounts.
I wonder if you have any information about John C Burdick – is he perhaps a relative of yours?
The reunion was held July 11, 2009 in Manton, Wexford County, Michigan. It was attended by about 100 people. They are descendants George Washington and Marry Jane (Abbott) Burdick (page 39 of the Johnson book) and son Fink and Cora (Hall) Burdick.
The oldest attending was Keitha Belle (Burdick) McDaniel (daughter of Fin and Cora's son Harry Burdick). She was born in 1921.
The following attended: Patty McConnon DuPont, Kirt Hanford and Melissa, Mary McDaniel and son, Phyllis House Bouen, Dallas McDaniel and wife Judith Osenbaugh and several others. Some I hadn't seen in at least 60 years.
There are plans to have it again next year, most likely Manton. The Burdicks are buried there in Soper Cemetery. We hope to have more people there next year.
They all enjoyed seeing my Johnson book and looking at each others pictures and information. We all agreed to keep in touch and exchange information. I believe everyone enjoyed the conversation and the great food brought by all.
Waiting for next year...
PS -- A few pictures are available.
Aural and Gordon Burdick celebrated their 70th wedding anniversary on July 30, 2009. The Burdicks, who live at the Fifth Avenue Retirement Center in Sequim, WA, celebrated with family members and friends at a family dinner at Cedarbrook Lavender & Herb Farm, Sequim, WA on 7/30/2009.
Aural Eloise Mathiesen (born 11/07/1914) and Jesse Gordon Burdick (born 8/6/1917) were married July 30,1939, in Loma Linda, Calif. She was a 1939 graduate of the Loma Linda University Nursing School and registered nurse working at the hospital there and he was a second-year medical student.
They had a son, Dwight Eugene Burdick (born 3/7/1941) but with help of family and friends during Aural’s pregnancy, Gordon Burdick nevertheless completed his studies and graduated as Dr. Burdick from Loma Linda Medical School in 1941.
After his internship in Tennessee, they moved to Fennville, Michigan where he was a family physician for eight years and had 3 more children Mary Lou Burdick (1942-1948) who was tragically killed by a car in front of their house at age 6, Bruce Emerald Burdick (born 4/10/1947), and Penny Ilene Burdick (born 9/30/1949). Dr. Burdick, wanting to spend more time with his growing family, subsequently switched to occupational medicine and moved to Baton Rouge, LA in 1949, where he became assistant medical director of Ethyl Corporation for 3 years, then moved to La Porte, Texas in 1952 where he was Plant Medical Director for their Deer Park, TX plant for 25 years, as well as School Board President, Municipal Utility Board President, and a founding Board member of San Jacinto Junior College. Then in 1974 moved back to Baton Rouge, LA to become Ethyl Corporation’s Chief Medical Director for 5 years.
Dr. Burdick retired in 1979, moved to Lake LBJ near Marble Falls, TX and became a toxicology consultant for 10 more years, moving in 1983 to Senora, CA to be near his aging mother Marye Bell (Wagner) Burdick (1895-1987) and fully retired there at age 72. Mrs. Burdick worked as a hospital and private duty nurse sporadically, but her main occupation was as a full-time homemaker and mother.
After the death of Marye Burdick in 1987, Dr. & Mrs. Burdick moved again in 1989 to Providence Point Retirement Communities in Issaquah, WA to be nearer to their daughter Penny, who had moved to Yakima, WA. After a stint as a missionary doctor in the Yetabon Valley of Ethiopia, Penny moved to Alaska and then settled in Sequim, WA in 2004. Soon thereafter in 2005, Dr. & Mrs. Burdick moved yet again to Sequim, where they now live and where they celebrated this marvelous 70th anniversary.
The Burdicks have three children. Dwight Burdick, M.D., is a board certified trauma surgeon, of Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, who has lived and worked there for 13 years as coordinator of emergency health services for the Al-Saud royal family. Bruce Burdick, J.D., of Alton, IL, is a patent attorney (www.burdlaw.com). Penny Burdick of Sequim, WA is a house-call holistic family physician (www.drpenny.org). Gordon and Aural have 11 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren.
Your humble Newsletter editor -- that would be me (firstname.lastname@example.org) -- needs your help with an inconsistency in Nellie Johnson's book. As you probably know, I have been dissecting "The Descendants of Robert Burdick of Rhode Island" as I build an on-line database of all Burdicks. Here's what I've uncovered. Sarah Ann (or Sally) Lewis is listed as the child of Isabel Burdick (187) and Jesse Lewis. She married James Chesebrough Burdick (200) and is listed in his record as his second wife with the name Sally Ann Lewis. The problem is that in James' record, her parents are listed as Joseph Lewis and Sally Ann Baker. Both records list Sarah/Sally's place of death as Kalamazoo, MI. Can anyone help straighten this out for me? Is this the same person? Were there two James', each of whom married a Sarah/Sally Lewis? Any help would be appreciated -- since I can't ask Ms. Johnson! Thanks.
Coincidently, Barbara DeLong (email@example.com) has also uncovered a possible discrepancy in Nellie's book. Harriet E. Cornelius is listed as the wife of Harrison H. Burdick, whose parents are Jeremiah(901) and Caroline Burdick. But Barbara wonders if Harriet may be the wife to William H. Burdick, another son of Jeremiah and Caroline. The 1880 U.S. Federal Census shows a couple by those names living in Andover, Alleghany Co., NY with children Cora, Frank, and Renway. In the 1860 census, William H. is listed as a son of Jeremiah and Caroline Burdick, their others being Pintess, Lester, Aealia, Augusta, and Stillman -- no Harrison. Perhaps the "Harrison H." listed in Nellie's book is really "William H." Any opinions?
John Langworthy (firstname.lastname@example.org) is hoping to find someone researching the Foster family. Both John and I descend from Robert Burdick Jr. and Rebecca Foster. Rebecca's parents, Thomas and Susannah (Parker) Foster, are as far back as the Burdick genealogy traces her line. John has additional information on Rebecca's ancestors and would like to verify its accuracy. If you can help, please contact him.
There are several Bond family members in the Burdick genealogy. One is James Bond who married Amarilla Burdick. Barbara Bond (email@example.com), whose husband's gg-grandfather was James E. Bond, found James Bond in the 1837 City Directory of Cleveland, in a business called "Bond and Bishop, Painters and Glaziers." Also there were brothers Moses Bond Jr. (a carpenter) and Elial Bond (a painter in Ohio City). After some hard work, Barbara found the "Bishop" was Jacob, recorded as a painter in 1845. By then James Bond had moved to Chicago where he appeared in the 1839 City Directory. Jacob Bishop's parents were Abram and Anna Truman (Bond) Bishop, he married Fanny Potter in New York and he died in Somers, WI. Now Anna Truman Bond, born in 1783, was the daughter of Moses Bond Sr. and Lydia Tremain/Truman who were married in 1782 in Great Barrington, MA. Unfortunately Moses' will, who died in 1812 in Castleton, VT, does not mention James! However, Barbara believes there was a relationship between James Bond and Jacob Bishop and is now trying to find branches of this family group which had gone into the Beekman Patent and then spread through NY state Barbara thinks James Bond arrived in Cleveland about 1835. Can anyone provide more information?
Kathleen Hague (firstname.lastname@example.org) has been researching her Burdick line for over three years and is still not able to verify the maiden name of Elizabeth Betsey, wife of Samuel Burdick (who is the son of Joshua Burdick and Mary Lamb). Kathleen has discovered someone who shows her maiden name as Northrup (daughter of a Samuel Northrup), born 1778 in Connecticut. Unfortunately, that person cannot remember where they obtained the information. Can anyone verify this?
Sometimes even I am amazed by the level of dedication of our family members. John Kiseli (email@example.com) is one of those. John wanted to honor his mother, Lynn Burdick, so he had a tattoo of the Burdick coat of arms placed on his arm! A truly amazing piece of art and respect. While I do not include images in these Newsletters, you can see John's tattoo by pointing your web browser to the The Burdick Family Association web site (http://www.burdickfamily.org), then select "Photos". Scroll down near the bottom and select the entry under John's name.
While you are looking in the "Photos" section, check out the entry just below John's. Matthew Parker (firstname.lastname@example.org) needs your help with information about John C. Burdick who served in the U.S. 8th Airforce in World War II. The full story is provided earlier in this Newsletter.
SQUEAKV@aol.com (SQUEAKV@aol.com) is trying to figure out the wives of Jay Burdick (I1187). Records show both Ida May Ellsworth and Lela A. Ellsworth as being married to Jay (Nellie Johnson's book lists Lela). But records also show a Catherine ?? as being his second wife. Do you know which of the Ellsworths were married to him? One story says that Lela married Jay after Ida died, but that couldn't be true if he married Catherine. Perhaps it was just that Lela moved in to take care of the children after Ida was diagnosed with a mental illness. Any ideas?
James Rich (email@example.com) came across a Justice of the Peace record from Lewiston, NY, October 13, 1839. It states that Julius H. Burdick married Sally Beach in the town of Lewiston on this day. James' ggg-grandfather, John Rich, and a woman Elizabeth (no last name) were witnesses to the marriage. This is one of only a few records James has about his ancestor. Supposedly John's wife was Metis, French/Indian, and John was from France. Do you know something about Julius Burdick? Or John Rich? James has discovered the Indian records are frustrating. Any information would be greatly appreciated.
Dakin Burdick -- are you out there? I haven't heard from you since you moved from Indiana University to The University of Michigan. Drop me an email (firstname.lastname@example.org) if you get this. Thanks.
Mary Ann (Burdick) Simrell (email@example.com) sends word that cousin, Lorene Pollad, passed away on November 24th. Lorene was in a bad car accident on the morning of August 23 on her way to Church in Karney, MO. Her car was sideswiped on I-35, causing her to loose control and hit a bridge. The accident crushed her back and paralyzed her legs. She then had a stroke and could not swallow and was barely able to talk. Her heart finally gave out and she passed away in her sleep November 24, 2009. The funeral was at the Prairie Ridge church in Polo, Mo where all the family is buried.
Kevin Scott Burdick (firstname.lastname@example.org) is from Yukon, OK and is looking for his connection to the Burdick family tree. His grandparents are Robert Harold and Juanita (Nale) Burdick of Hutchinson, KS. Their children are Harold Jr., Larry Kenneth (Kevin's father, born in Grand Junction, CO on 03-10-1945, died 08-31-1999), Robert, Richard, Michael, Beverly, Kenny. Kevin's siblings are Larry Keith and Cindy. Kevin's Burdick side of the family was never around in his younger years so he has little information about aunts and uncles. He is hoping that with this small amount of information someone may know more.
Kathleen Hague (email@example.com) is trying to verify the maiden name of Samuel Burdick's wife, Elizabeth. Samuel is the son of Joshua and Mary (Lamb) Burdick. Elizabeth's name is listed as Elizabeth (Betsey) but no maiden name. Kathleen discovered someone who shows Elizabeth as the daughter of a Samuel Northrup, born 1778 in Connecticut. One of Elizabeth's children is named Samuel Northrup Burdick, so the name fits. Unfortunately, the person supplying this information was unable to remember where he obtained the it. Can you help Kathleen either verify or dismiss this name? They are her direct ancestors, so she would love to be able to at last find out Elizabeth's maiden name.
William Millard (firstname.lastname@example.org) is trying to find his ancestor in Steuben, NY. William's family tree originates with Frederick Cole, born May 22, 1835 in Howard, Steuben County, New York. he first mention of him is in the 1850 Federal Census, living with William Davis Burdick (I529), wife Hannah and their six children. William D. Burdick owned a lumber mill and the family were carpenters. On Frederick Cole's death certificate, as well as his Civil War Pension application, his occupation is listed as carpenter. Two questions remain: who were Frederick's parents and was (and if so, why was) he working with William Davis Burdick?
Tom Gross (Thosgross@aol.com) sends the following little article that appeared in the Summit Daily News of Summit County, CO: Williamstown, MA -- A western Massachusetts woman who helped revive the tradition of giving a cane from The Boston Post newspaper to here town’s oldest resident has become its latest recipient. Hazel Burdick turned 101 in August. She received the gold-tipped cane this week in a ceremony in Williamstown, a rural community of about 8,000 residents in the heart of the Berkshire Mountains. The publisher of the now defunct Boston Post gave hundreds of the canes in 1909 to towns in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It was a publicity gimmick and a way to honor the communities’ oldest residents. Williamstown revived its tradition 10 years ago after Burdick pushed officials in the town to find its lost cane, which was discovered later in a resident’s attic. Burdick says she’d been hoping for decades for her turn to receive it.
Are you stuck looking for a relative? If so, consider contacting Susanna Auerbach (email@example.com). Susanna is a professional genealogist who performs all kind of research, finding long lost relatives to complete family trees, and anything genealogical inside and outside the United States. Using her access to some really good resources, Susanna has been instrumental in making some difficult Burdick connections in Sweden.
Sara Burdick McGuire (firstname.lastname@example.org), who operates "Alliance for Animals" in Ohio, wants us to remember our four-legged friends at this time of year. These are hard times for organizations such as Sara's. Animal rescue is relentless and is more difficult now with adoptions and donations slowing, and more pets in need due to the bad economy and home foreclosures. But she keeps plugging away with the help of some awesome people. Visit her website at www.1-800-Save-A-Pet.com and the associated website www.Petfinder.com.
These are also hard times for many Churches. Jeff Gavin is a Missouri Synod Lutheran Minister and his wife, Lynn Davies-Gavin (Lynndavies3@aol.com), is one of our Burdick relatives. Jeff has been in the Ministry for over 27 years and with St. John Lutheran Church in Mount Prospect, IL for the last 17 years. But now, due to the poor economy, businesses and Churches have been closing their doors, and St. John is in danger of a similar fate. St. John is very important for the neighborhood and new people are moving in and visiting the Church, so the future looks bright -- if it can survive. Jeff is very talented and is the Circuit Counselor for his Brothers of the Cloth. Unfortunately, this professional stress as well as other family issues and giving everything to St. John have pushed Jeff and Lynn to their limits. So during this Joyous Season, if you can find a moment to pray for them it would be greatly appreciated. And if you are interested in helping in other ways, contact Lynn. Thanks.
Finally... I goofed! I sent you an email a few weeks ago requesting that Christmas cards be sent to Tyler Rolstad in the Navy. (BTW, several of you did send cards, thank you!) But I listed the Maxson Family Association web site's address as www.maxson3000.net. My bad! It is www.maxson2000.net. My apologies to you and the Maxson family.